By Santosh Kulkarni, Prathima Agrawal
This publication addresses the necessity to increase TCP’s functionality within information facilities by way of supplying suggestions which are either functional and backward suitable with common TCP models. The authors method this problem first by way of deriving an analytical version for TCP’s functionality below standard info middle workload site visitors. They then talk about a few options which are designed to enhance TCP functionality by way of both proactively detecting community congestion via probabilistic retransmission or by way of averting timeout penalty via dynamic resizing of TCP segments. Experimental effects exhibit that every of innovations mentioned outperforms normal TCP inside of a knowledge center.
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Extra info for Analysis of TCP Performance in Data Center Networks
The data from all senders traverse a bottleneck link in a many-to-one fashion. As the number of concurrent senders increase, the perceived application-level throughput at the receiver collapses. The application at the receiver sees throughput that is orders of magnitude lower than its link capacity . TCP throughput collapse was first observed in early parallel network storage projects such as NASD . It was later documented as part of a larger paper by Nagle et al in . Today, the same Incast communication pattern can be found in many popular data center applications such as cluster based storage systems [27–29], data analytics [30–32], Big Data , MapReduce  as well as Hadoop .
Note that segments carrying no data are not transmitted reliably, except for segments carrying the SYN or FIN flag. In addition, a “fast” retransmission of the segment at the head of the retransmission queue can be triggered by the reception of at least three duplicate ACKs before the expiry of the retransmission timer . In both cases the retransmission is followed by congestion control measures that are discussed in Sect. 4. Note that some implementations of TCP, organize the data in retransmit queue in segments, as they were originally transmitted, while others do not keep the segment boundaries.
4. An illustration of how TCP’s congestion window evolves due to the protocol’s aforementioned congestion control algorithms, is shown in Fig. 5. In Fig. 5, TCP begins by setting its slow start threshold, ssthresh, to an arbitrarily high value. It then starts its data transfer using the slow start algorithm to determine the available capacity in the network. During this phase, TCP’s congestion window cwnd, grows exponentially. In the example above, slow start phase ends when TCP experiences a timeout.
Analysis of TCP Performance in Data Center Networks by Santosh Kulkarni, Prathima Agrawal