By Leonard Susskind
Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by way of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein’s recognition that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound concerns about the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 a long time those questions wondered theoretical physicists and at last ended in a revolution within the method we predict approximately house, time, subject and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a outstanding precept known as "The Holographic Principle", that is now a massive concentration of consciousness in gravitational study, quantum box concept and trouble-free particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String conception, develops and explains those suggestions.
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Extra info for An Introduction To Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution
For example, we may ask whether any such thermal eﬀects are seen by freely falling observers carrying their thermometers with them as they pass through the horizon. Obviously the answer is no. A thermometer at rest in an inertial frame in the Minkowski vacuum will record zero temperature. It is tempting to declare that the thermal eﬀects seen by the Fidos are ﬁctitious and that the reality is best described in the frame of the Frefos. 42 Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution However, by yielding to this temptation we risk prejudicing ourselves too much toward the viewpoint of the Frefos.
Obviously the state Ψ is translationally invariant under the usual Minkowski space translations. Thus the Fidos must see the vacuum as invariant under translations along the X and Y axes. However, the translation invariance along the Z axis is explicitly broken by the act of singling out the origin Z = 0 for Quantum Fields in Rindler Space 37 special consideration. 20) A very important property of ρR is that it is invariant under Rindler time translations ω → ω + constant. This follows from the Lorentz boost invariance of Ψ.
The Von Neumann (or entanglement) entropy should not be confused with the thermal entropy of the second law of thermodynamics. This entropy has its origin in coarse graining. B. = e−β H . B. B. 4 Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution The Unruh Density Matrix Now let us consider the space of states describing a Lorentz invariant quantum ﬁeld theory in Minkowski space. 2 the surface T = 0 of Minkowski space is shown divided into two halves, one in Region I and one in Region III.
An Introduction To Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution by Leonard Susskind