By Eric Rosenberg
Whereas unicast routing determines a direction from one resource node to 1 vacation spot node, multicast routing determines a direction from one resource to many locations, or from many assets to many locations. We survey multicast routing equipment for whilst the set of locations is static, and for whilst it truly is dynamic. whereas many of the tools we overview are tree dependent, a few non-tree tools also are mentioned. We survey effects at the form of multicast timber, hold up restricted multicast routing, aggregation of multicast site visitors, inter-domain multicast, and multicast digital deepest networks. We concentrate on simple algorithmic ideas, and mathematical versions, instead of implementation point protocol information. Many traditionally very important equipment, no matter if now not at present used, are reviewed to provide point of view at the evolution of multicast routing.
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Extra resources for A Primer of Multicast Routing
The ﬁrst model studied in  is the same V -ary model used in . For 1 ≤ k ≤ D, there are a total of V k arcs connecting nodes at level k − 1 to nodes at level k, and the probability that such an arc is in the tree after R receiver hosts have been selected is 1 −(1−V −k )R . The expected number of arcs in the tree is thus D V k 1 − (1 − V −k )R . 571 . 153 for all x and V < 1000. 7 The Shape of Multicast Trees N Lm (R) = Lu D V − e−a V −1 − 33 V 1 ae−a + aV e−aV + O − V −1 2 1 ln R . The second model studied in  also assumes a V -ary tree of depth D, where all receivers are connected to leaf nodes.
6 Core Based Trees 43 In a CBT, a single core node is assigned for each g, and a ( , g) shared tree, rooted at the core node, is built. The core could be the same for all groups, or diﬀerent cores could be used for diﬀerent groups. 3 below. A CBT is bidirectional: packets for g can ﬂow up or down the tree. A node n starts the process of joining the tree when it receives an IGMP membership report from a subtending host who wants to receive g; node n then sends a ( , g) join request to the next hop router on the shortest path to the core node.
A PIM adjacency must be periodically refreshed with a Hello, and an adjacency expires if a Hello is not received by a PIM neighbor after some conﬁgured time period. 1 PIM Dense Mode PIM Dense Mode was developed in 1998 by Deering, Estrin, Farinacci, Jacobson, Helmy, Meyer, and Wei . This method is an example of a push method , which assumes that each node and subnet contains at least one host interested in receiving the multicast stream. PIM Dense Mode uses source trees. Consider a given group g and a source host s, subtending the source node n(s), and sending to g.
A Primer of Multicast Routing by Eric Rosenberg